# When was Algebra Invented?

The history of algebra, the mathematical field that studies notation, variables, and equations, is deep and varied. In mathematics, it plays a crucial role in both problem-solving and deductive reasoning. Algebra’s evolution was a slow process that spanned many civilisations and eras.

## Early Mathematical Systems

Mathematics has always played an essential role in human society. Mathematics was developed by ancient cultures to help people solve real-world issues, chart the heavens, and conduct business. The ancient Babylonian and Egyptian mathematical systems are two of the most well-known early systems.

**Ancient Babylonians (1800 BCE – 1600 BCE)**

The ancient Babylonians of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) are often cited as an example of a civilisation with exceptional mathematical prowess. They created an advanced mathematical system that paved the way for algebra. They recorded their mathematical works on clay tablets, which have since been analysed by scholars.

## Numerical System

The Babylonians’ sexagesimal (or base-60) numbering system was capable of representing a wide range of values. This method made it easier to perform computations involving proportions, ratios, and measurement conversions. They made great strides in the development of numerical notation by recognising the importance of place value and using separate symbols for ones, tens, hundreds, and so on.

**Algebraic Concepts**

Despite the lack of symbolic notation found in modern algebra, the Babylonians’ mathematical books demonstrate a sophisticated grasp of algebraic concepts. Although their approaches were essentially numerical and geometric, they were able to formulate and solve linear and quadratic equations. They could use the Pythagorean theorem, for instance, to find the lengths of the sides of right triangles.

**Practical Applications**

The Babylonians put their mathematical prowess to use in subjects as diverse as astronomy, geography, and economics. Problems in commerce, finance, estate planning, and surveying all benefited from their use of algebraic techniques. They used mathematical models as seen in A-Level maths, to forecast astronomical phenomena and conducted their own astronomical observations.

**Ancient Egyptians (2000 BCE – 1550 BCE)**

The ancient Egyptians, who accomplished much in the way of building and engineering, also created a system of mathematics that was highly applicable. Their mathematical abilities were intrinsically linked to practical applications, especially in the fields of building, surveying, and taxation.

**Hieroglyphic Numerals**

Egyptians wrote their numerical system in hieroglyphics. Powers of ten were represented by their own unique symbols, allowing for the efficient representation of very big numbers. However, because their number system did not include a zero, they were unable to execute many mathematical operations.

**Measurement and Geometry**

The Egyptians were masters at applying mathematics to the built environment and surveying. They achieved such exactness in the design and construction of the pyramids, temples, and other structures by employing geometric principles. Their architectural successes can be directly attributed to their familiarity with geometric characteristics and proportions.

**Unit Fractions**

In Egyptian mathematics, unit fractions played a crucial role. To put it simply, a unit fraction has a numerator of 1. Egyptians added unit fractions when expressing fractions. They portrayed 2/3 as 1/2 plus 1/6, for instance. They were able to use this notation to perform division and fraction computations more easily.

**Ancient Greece (6th century BCE – 4th century BCE):**

The ancient Greeks, renowned for their groundbreaking research in many disciplines, also achieved important strides in mathematics. Algebraic concepts were used, although geometry and number theory were the main focuses of their mathematics. Some of the most important things ancient Greek mathematicians ever did are listed below.

**Pythagoras (6th century BCE)**

The Pythagorean theorem is the most well-known result of the great Greek mathematician Pythagoras. Although his focus was primarily geometric, his exploration of the connections between numbers and shapes lay the groundwork for the advent of algebraic thought.

**Euclid (3rd century BCE)**

The influential work by Euclid, commonly called the “Father of Geometry,” is titled “Elements.” Although geometry is the main topic, the “Elements” does touch on algebra in a few places. Euclid used algebraic manipulation of ratios and magnitudes to establish methods for determining common measures and proportions.

**Diophantus (3rd century BCE)**

As the “Father of Algebra,” the Greek mathematician Diophantus deserves credit for the advancement of algebraic methods. His research into algebra led to the formulation of techniques for resolving indeterminate equations, which are today called Diophantine equations. His contributions laid the groundwork for later advances in algebra by identifying integer solutions to problems.

**Ancient India (5th century BCE – 12th century CE):**

Algebra was only one area where ancient Indian mathematicians made tremendous strides. Indian mathematicians, particularly those affiliated with the “Brahmagupta School” and the “Kerala School,” created innovative algebraic methods and made important contributions to the field. Here are a few contributions that stand out:

**Aryabhata (5th century CE)**

The Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata is often regarded as the pioneer of algebra in India. His book “Aryabhatiya” popularised the use of notations for x, y, and k to represent the unknown, a constant, and other such terms. He also did work on quadratic problems, discovering new approaches to their solution.

**Brahmagupta (7th century CE)**

Another important Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (7th century CE), made important contributions to algebra. In his book “Brahmasphutasiddhanta,” he laid forth the principles for using negative and zero integers in calculations. In addition, he created new methods for solving linear and quadratic equations using algebra.

**Bhaskara II (12th century CE)**

Bhaskara II, commonly known as Bhaskaracharya, was an Indian mathematician who developed the field of algebra further. His book “Lilavati” discussed several aspects of algebra, from simple arithmetic to algebraic equations and geometric progressions. He developed novel techniques for dealing with indeterminate and quadratic problems.

**Algebra in the Islamic Golden Age**

As Muslim scientists expanded upon the mathematical discoveries of earlier civilisations, algebra flourished during the Islamic Golden Age.

**Al-Khwarizmi (c. 780 CE – c. 850 CE)**

The Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi is widely regarded as the “Father of Algebra.” With the publication of “Kitab al-Jabr wa al-Muqabala,” his seminal work, he systematically provided new ways to solve linear and quadratic equations. Using “al-jabr” (reunion) and “al-muqabala” (balance), al-Khwarizmi employed words and symbols to represent unknown numbers; his work was crucial to the creation of algebraic notation. His approaches to algebraic problems and solutions were influential in the development of the subject at the time.

**Al-Karaji (c. 953 CE – c. 1029 CE)**

The Iranian mathematician Al-Karaji made important advances in algebraic techniques. He pioneered the study of algebraic polynomials and uncovered several interesting facts about them. By developing methods for expanding and factoring algebraic expressions, Al-Karaji provided a more organised approach to the manipulation of algebraic expressions. He made important contributions to algebraic thought with his work on binomial coefficients and polynomial arithmetic.

**Omar Khayyam (1048 CE – 1131 CE)**

Algebra and geometry benefited greatly from the work of Omar Khayyam, a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. By studying the points where conic sections and curves overlap, he was able to discover geometric solutions for cubic equations. Depending on the number of positive roots they had, Khayyam placed cubic equations into one of three categories. His work on algebraic methods and geometric solutions for cubic problems impacted the study of higher-level algebra by subsequent generations of mathematicians.

**Renaissance and Modern Algebra**

Significant progress was made in algebra in Europe throughout the Renaissance and the centuries that followed. Algebraic notation, algebraic geometry, and the birth of symbolic algebra are all areas where mathematicians have achieved significant strides.

**François Viète (1540 CE – 1603 CE)**

Algebra owes a great deal to the work of French mathematician François Viète. In algebraic equations, he pioneered the use of letters and symbols to stand in for variables and constants. Viète’s unique symbolic notation paved the path for the development of current algebraic notation by making it possible to manipulate and solve polynomial problems.

**René Descartes (1596 CE – 1650 CE)**

Algebraic geometry took another step forward thanks to the work of French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes. In his book “La Géométrie,” he detailed his discoveries about the relationship between algebra and geometry, which became the basis for the development of coordinate geometry. In the Cartesian coordinate system developed by Descartes, an algebraic equation can be demonstrated as a curve in geometry and vice versa. As a result of this development, graphs of curves and equations may be analysed systematically.

**Algebraic Symbols and Notation**

Algebraic notation and symbols were first introduced during the Renaissance and were crucial to the growth of the discipline. Famous mathematicians who used letters and symbols to stand in for variables, constants, and unknown quantities in equations include Viète, Descartes, and Isaac Newton. By using this symbolic representation, algebraic ideas could be expressed quickly and precisely, and algebraic expressions could be manipulated with ease. It was an effective resource for working with algebraic equations and expressions.

**Algebraic Techniques and Concepts**

Significant progress was also made in algebraic methods and ideas during this time period by mathematicians. Complex numbers, polynomial equations, and factorisation were some of the topics covered in this course. There was also a rise in interest in the study of algebraic structures like groups, rings, and fields. Notable contributions to abstract algebra were made by mathematicians like Évariste Galois and Augustin-Louis Cauchy, who laid the groundwork for contemporary algebraic structures and ideas.

**Final Thoughts**

Numerous mathematicians throughout history have contributed to the growth and development of algebra by developing and refining its concepts, methodologies, and notations. Algebra’s history-spanning development is indicative of humanity’s innate fascination with and dedication to furthering its understanding of mathematics. From its ancient roots to its contemporary uses, algebra’s central position in problem-solving, critical thinking, and mathematical discovery remains unchanged.

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